A few strategies are accessible to figure out Pregnancy diagnosis in heifers and cows

Pregnancy detection in Cow


Clinical Tests for Pregnancy diagnosis:

  1. Rectal palpation
  2. Ultrasonography
  3. Ballotment and mammogenesis i.e. improvement of mammary organs.

Immunological tests  for Pregnancy diagnosis:

  1. Hormone (progesterone, estron sulphate)
  2. PAS (pregnancy associated substances): early pregnancy factor (EPF), pregnancy-associated glycoprot (PAG)
  3. Non come back to estrus

Pregnancy Signs in Rectal Palpation:

  1. Asymmetry of uterine horn
  2. Position of uterus
  3. Presence of fetal membrane – allento-chorion (upto 30-90 days these are identified), amniotic vesicle (as ahead of schedule as 35-40 days these are recognized), placentomes (formed by combination of crunkles and cotyledons. Following 90 day distinguishable).
  4. Presence of conceptus/baby.
  5. Presence of CL on ovary

Estimation of phases of Pregnancy:
30 days:

  • Slight asymmetry of uterine horn.
  • The presence of Corpus Luteum.
  • Presence of Chorioallantois membrane.
  • Amniotic vesicle pea size.
  • Uterus in pelvic area.

35-40 days:

  • Uterus in the pelvic area.
  • Thinning or weakening of uterine wall
  • The presence of  Corpus Luteum.
  • Presence of Chorioallantois membrane
  • Amniotic vesicle size is about the size of the yolk of hen (0.7 cm).

45 day:

  • Uterus in pelvic area
  • Thinning or weaking of uterine wall
  • Presence of Corpus luteum
  • Presence of Chorioallantoic membrane
  • Amniotic vesicle size small egg of hen

60 day:

  • Uterus in the pelvic area.
  • The presence of Corpus Luteum.
  • Presence of Chorioallontois membrane
  • Amniotic vesicle 9-10 cm
  • Fetus size 2.5 inch
  • Fetal membrane slip test is positives

90 day:

  • Uterine horn 3 inches in diameter
  • Placentome (1-1.5 cm) pea size
  • The presence of  Corpus Luteum.
  • Presence of Chorioallantois membrane
  • Fetus 6.5 inch (rat size)

120 day:

  • Uterus descending in pelvic brim
  • Placentome (1.5-2.5 cm)
  • The presence of  Corpus Luteum.
  • Presence of Chorioallantois membrane
  • Fetus 10-12 inch (small cat size)
  • Presence of Fremitus (uterine artery)

150 day:

  • Uterus in abdominal area
  • Palpation is difficult because fetus is in abdominal cavity
  • Placentomes (2.5-4 cm)
  • Presence of  Corpus Luteum.
  • Fremitis (pulse feel in uterine artery)
  • Fetus is large cat sized

180 day:

  • Uterus in abdominal area
  • Placentome (4-5 cm) equal to large coin
  • Presence of Corpus Luteum
  • Fremitus pulse feel in uterine artery
  • Fetus is small dog sized

210 day:

  • Fetus easily felt due to increased size
  • Placentome
  • Fremitus

Pregnancy diagnosis by Ultrasonography:

In this procedure ongoing B mode is utilized which distinguishes the pregnancy at day 26. It is additionally used to distinguish baby heart beat, estimate, twin pregnancy, fetal sex, and any variation from the norm and so on.

Pregnancy diagnosis by Ballotment:

In later phases of pregnancy fetus might be palpate through right flank. Put weight on the correct side and feel liquid which is positive indication of pregnancy.

Pregnancy diagnosis by Mammogenesis:

Size of mammary glands increases. It is more prompt in heifer following 4-5 months.

Immunological Tests for Pregnancy Diagnosis
Hormone Analysis


Milk is favored as test sample. Serum is likewise utilized. Add sodium dichromate in mlik before sending it to lab. 21-24 days of pregnancy is measured. 80 % exact outcome for pregnancy. It is distinguished by ELISA and RIA. In the event that progesterone level is low, the animal is in estrus. In the event that progesterone level is high, animal is in diestrus or pregnant.


It is discharged from fetoplacental duct. RIA and ELISA are utilized to distinguish estrosulphate. ELISA is more dependable. Following 60 days it comes to blood yet its amount is low. It can be distinguished following 80 days in a few dairy animals yet correct following 100 days. Level is at top on 150 day. Drawback is that it can’t be utilized for early detection.

PAS (Pregnancy Associated Substances)

Early Pregnancy Factor:

It can be recognized as ahead of schedule as 24-48 hours after fertilization. If there should be an occurrence of death of embryo it vanishes from blood following 24-48 hours. It is immunosuppressive operator with the goal that baby may not be removed. Rosette Inhibition Test is utilized to distinguish EPF. This is relentless test so less utilized.

Pregnancy Associated Glycoprotein:

There are 21 glycoproteins and subdivided into 200. Critical are PAG A (from fetus, not discharged in blood, so can’t be distinguished), PAG B (created in placenta), PAG 60 (identified 28-30 days of pregnancy). These are identified by RIA, ELISA. These assistance in proliferation of the embryonic cells.

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